Carol Kaye session musician
08-05-2017, 01:42 AM, (This post was last modified: 08-05-2017, 05:10 AM by john.)
Carol Kaye session musician
I first learned of Carol Kaye watching videos of the Brian Wilson working with a group of studio musicians known as the Wrecking Crew in making Pet Sounds. Although she started as a guitar player, she went on to become known as the premiere studio electric bass player (it was originally known as the Fender bass and she may have been the person who popularized calling it "electric" bass).

Quote:...the most-recorded bassist in history, with upwards of 10,000 sessions to her credit....

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If you have listened to the radio or watched TV since 1958, you've heard Carol Kaye play.

Carol was one of the core group of anonymous studio musicians who lent her unique styles of studio Guitar and Electric Bass playing to many of the hits recorded by such popular artists like the Beach Boys, Ray Charles, TheRighteous Bros., Johnny Mathis, Nancy Sinatra, Sam Cooke, Glen Campbell, Lou Rawls, Jan & Dean, Henry Mancini, The Lettermen, Paul Revere & Raiders, Monkees, Buckinghams, April & Nino,Sonny & Cher, Chris Montez, Andy Williams, Quincy Jones, Joe Cocker, Ike &Tina Turner, Mel Torme, Bobby Darin, Frank Zappa, Wayne Newton, Herb Alpert, O.C. Smith, Don Ho, Al Martino, and a few Motown (LA).

[Image: 01_CarolKaye.jpg]

Quote:Carol Kaye was born in Everett, Washington to musician parents, Clyde and Dot Smith, both professionals. She has played and taught guitar professionally since 1949, played bebop jazz guitar in dozens of nightclubs around Los Angeles with top groups (also in Bob Neal's jazz group with Jack Sheldon backing Lenny Bruce, with Teddy Edwards, Billy Higgins etc.), accidentally got into studio work late 1957 with the Sam Cooke recordings and other big recordings on guitar for the 1st 5 years of studio work in Hollywood.

In 1963 when a Fender bassist didn't show up for a record date at Capitol Records, she picked up the Fender bass (as it was called then) and augmented her busy schedule playing bass and grew quickly to be the no. 1 call with record companies, movie & TV film people, commericals (ads), and industrial films.

Carol realized some of the potential in the electric bass when she modified the bass line in The Beat Goes On and transformed a "nothing song into a hit."

Quote:Arthur Uvaas
Backed by the famous session musicians known as the: WRECKING CREW, this Sonny & Cher classic never gets old...Can you dig it?

Art Donovan
Yes, Indeed, Arthur. Carol Kaye, the studio bassist legend, created that actual bass line for the song in the studio. GENIUS! Smile

Carol played bass on these recordings, among others:
Quote:Whipped Cream - Herb Alpert
Spanish Eyes - Al Martino
Good Vibrations, Help Me Rhonda, Sloop John B, I Get Around, Wouldn't It Be Nice (dano), Calif. Girls, God Only Knows, Pet Sounds lp, Heroes & Villains, Caroline No, Surf's Up, Child Is The Father Of The Man, Do You Like Worms?, Smile lp, Cabinessence, Fire sessions, I Was Made To Love Her, Let Him Run Wild - Beach Boys
Little Green Apples, Hickory Hollar - O.C. Smith
Goin' Out Of My Head/Can't Take my Eyes Off Of You medley, Hurt So Bad, Shangrila, When I Fall in Love, More, Theme from Summer Place, etc. - Lettermen
Something Stupid - Frank & Nancy Sinatra
Boots, Sugar Town, You Only Live Twice theme, etc. - Nancy Sinatra
Feelin' Alright - Joe Cocker
The Way We Were - Barbra Streisand
Tell Her You Love Her, The World We Knew (OD dano fuzz on "World"), How Do You Keep The Music Playing, etc. - Frank Sinatra
Hold Me Thrill Me etc. - Mel Carter
Godfather Theme, Love Story, Can't Take My Eyes Off Of You, etc. - Andy Williams
In The Heat Of The Night, I Don't Need No Doctor, America The Beautiful, Eleanor Rigby, I Chose To Sing The Blues, Here We Go Again, Don't Change
On Me, Feel So Bad, Understanding etc. - Ray Charles
Romeo & Juliet Theme (A Time For Love), Willow Weep For Me, Godfather Theme, others & Doc Severinson lp etc. - Henry Mancini
Mercy Mercy Mercy etc. - Buckinghams
Indian Reservation etc. - Paul Revere & Raiders
Natural Man, Love Is A Hurtin' Thing, Unforgettable, Your Good Thing etc. - Lou Rawls
John Gummoe's Rhythm Of The Rain - Cascades
Song Of Innocence - David Axelrod I Was Made To Love Her - Stevie Wonder
What'd I Say, A Little Less Conversation, Suspicious Minds etc. - Elvis Presley (this cut is claimed by 4 others too)
Bless The Beasts And The Children - Perry Botkin
Little GTO, Go Little Honda - Hondels
Candy Man, Have A Little Talk, Mr. Bojangles, Legend In My Time, I'm Not Anyone - Sammy Davis Jr.
Shaft Theme - movie OD MGM w/J.J.Johnson (credited on sheet music)
You Gave Me A Mountain, To Each His Own etc. - Frankie Laine
Games People Play, Happy Together, Comin' Home etc. - Mel Torme
Wichita Lineman, Galveston, etc. - Glen Campbell
Someday We'll Be together Again, Ain't No Mountain High Enough - Diana Ross (w/Temps, cut 1968 RCA, Paul Humphrey on drums released 1970, you hear my improvising on this after my music fell down on take)
If I Could Build My Whole World Around You, Ain't Nothin' But The Real Thing - Marvin Gaye & Tami Terrell (Steiner's studio - LA)
Don't Pull Your Love Out On Me baby - Hamilton, Joe Franks & Reynolds (ABC Paramount OD)
It Must Be Him etc. - Vickie Carr
12th Of Never, Alone Again, Memories, etc. - Johnny Mathis
Tiny Bubbles etc. - Don Ho
When I Die - Motherlode (Toronto)
Batman Theme & others - Marketts
I'm A Believer, Last Train To Clarksville & others - Monkees
Homeward Bound, I Am A Rock, Scarborough Fair - Simon & Garfunkle
Call Me etc. - Chris Montez
Straight Life, Honey etc. - Bobby Goldsboro
River Deep, Mountain High - Tina Turner
No Matter What Shape Your Stomach's In - T-Bones
This Diamond Ring, Just My Style, etc. - Gary Lewis and Playboys
Soul & Inspiration - Righteous Bros.
Elusive Butterfly - Bob Lind
Hikky Burr - Bill Cosby TV Theme/Quincy Jones (TV and single) "Livin' It Up" lp - Jimmy Smith
Chump Change - Quincy Jones
Red Roses For A Blue Lady etc. - Vic Dana
Up A Lazy River (rock part) etc. - Bobby Darin
It's A Small World - Mike Curb & Congregation (at Disneyworld too)
Light My Fire - Doors (listed in book)
In Crowd, Going To The Gogo, etc. (dano, el. bass) - Dobie Gray
Bonnie Jean - Ed Ames
Love Child, Baby Love, Stop In The Name Of Love, Back In My Arms Again, You Can't Hurry Love, My World Is Empty Without You, Reflections, Love Is Here And Now You're Gone, You're All I Need To Get By etc. - Supremes
GIT On Broadway TV Show - Diana Ross/Temptations cut 1969 NBC, Al Lapin contractor
Come Together - Count Basie
I Can't Help Myself, Bernadette etc. - 4 Tops
Peace Of Mind, Out Of This World - Nancy Wilson
Willow Weep For Me - Chad & Jeremy
This Is My Song - Pet Clarke
Joe Williams Live lp
Big Man lp - Cannonball Adderly
A Time For Love - Tony Bennett
Northern Windows lp - Hampton Hawes Trio
Get Ready, I Second That Emotion - Temptations
Doo Ron Ron - Crystals
Count Me In etc. - Bobby Vee
Yellow Balloon - Gary Zekeley
Baby The Rain Must Fall - Glenn Yarborough
Midnight Confessions, etc. - Grass Roots
Home Of The Brave - Jody Miller
David Axlerod produced lps
You Made Me So Very Happy - Brenda Holloway
Sixteen Tons (60s recut heard now on radio, others) - Tenn. Ernie Ford
Alone Again Or, Dailey Planet - Love
Bang Bang, Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves - Cher
Winter Wonderland - Darlene Love
Expected to Fly - Buffalo Springfield
The Summer Wind - Wayne Newton
Universal Jones Vol. I - Gene McDaniels
Do I Love You? - Ronnie Spector & The Ronettes
Fastman Raiderman - Frank Black NEW
Frummenn - The Original Studmenn (VIP Iceland group) NEW
Rhythm Of The Rain - John Gummoe and Cascades
I've Got Everything I Need - Gerald & Nancy Ray
Endless Summer CD, Beach Boys
Spotlight On Bobby Darin, Bobby Darin
16 Most Requested Songs, Robert Goulet
Greatest Hits Vols. 1 & 2, Billy Joel
The Very Best of Frank Sinatra
The Hit Years, Frank & Nancy Sinatra
Ballads Blues & Big Bands, Nancy Wilson
All Time Greatest Hits, Barry White
How Can You Mend a Broken Heart - Roger Williams
Do I Love You - Frank Wilson Motown Soul
1960s Love Unlimited Orchestra - Barry White,
Urizen - Dave Axelrdod
Kaye's sampled bass lines on:
Puffin on a Cloud - Beatnuts
A Day at The Races - Jurassic 5
Man And Boy - Bill Withers/Quincy Jones
Midnight Cowboy - Percy Faith
"The Good Life" - Bobby Darin
"Our Town" - Frank Sinatra

[Image: Wrecking-Crew-Carol-Kaye-Bill-Pitman-631.jpg]

Played guitar on
Quote:Unchained Melody, You've Lost That Lovin' Feeling - The Righteous Brothers
La Bamba - Ritchie Valens
The Beat Goes On (Dano bass guitar), He's A Rebel, I Got You Babe, Baby Don't Go, All I Want To Do (backbeat elec. guitar)- Sonny and Cher
Surfin' USA - The Beach Boys (Elec. Rhythm Guitar, Billy Strange on Solo Lead Guitar - Union contract)
What A Wonderful World, Summertime - Sam Cooke
Almost In My Arms - Houseboat movie
What The World Needs Now - Jackie DeShannon
Bang Bang, Alfie, Needles and Pins - Cher
Danke Shoen - Wayne Newton
In the Misty Moonlight - Dean Martin
Comin' In the Back Door - Baja Marimba Band
Mexican Shuffle - Herb Alpert
Do You Love Me - The Isley Brothers
Little Old Lady From Pasadena, Dead Man's Curve, Surf City - Jan and Dean
Long White Room - Nancy Wilson
In Crowd (Dano bass guitar) - Dobie Gray
Smooth Operator - Sara Vaughn
Johnny Angel - Shelly Fabares
My Cup Runneth Over, Try To Remember, Sunrise Sunset - Ed Ames
Deep Purple - April and Nino
Birds and the Bees - Jewel Akens
Husbands and Wives - Roger Miller
Let's Dance - Chris Montez
Zippity Doo Da - Bob B. Soxx and the Blue Jeans
Highland Fling - Marti Barris
1st 2 Frank Zappa LP's (12-string)
Needles and Pins - Jackie DuShannon
Most of the Phil Spector-produced hits with The Righteous Brothers
Ronny and the Ronetttes
The Crystals - And Then He Kissed Me ((Elec. 12-string guitar)
The Paris Sisters
The Blossoms
Many of the early O'Jays hits
Many other early hits with David McCullum (mostly el. 12-string guitar), Harry Nilsson, Chipmonks, Duayne Eddy, Dick Dale, Pat Boone, Rosemary Clooney, Ed Ames, Paul Anka, Sonny & Cher (mostly el. 12-string guitar fills), 25 Guitars lps, Ray Charles, Willie Bobo, Bessie Griffin, Ike and Tina Turner, Ritchie Valens, Sam Cooke, Kris Kristofferson, Ann-Margaret, H. B. Barnum, Sarah Vaughn, Jan & Dean, Isley Bros., Fred Smith, lots of funky soul stuff, as well as the pop, and jazz with Chet Baker, Jack Milman band, Golden Boy lp (w/H.B.Barnum), Cannonball
Adderly mid-60s, Mongo Santamaria, Howard Roberts, Rene Bloch, and some others...

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Quote:Some T.V. Shows - Electric Bass

Music, Jazz, Electric Bass, Bass, Guitar, Jazz Guitar, Bass Guitar, Female Musician, Studio Musician, 60's Hits, Hit Records, Most Recorded Bassist, Bass Lines, Tutors, Educational, Music Teacher, Music Books, Music Videos, Music CDsM*A*S*H
Mission Impossible
Hawaii 5-O
Bill Cosby Show (the first one)
Room 222
Streets of San Fransico
Brady Bunch
Hogan's Heros
Addams Family
It Takes a Thief
Wonder Woman
Peyton Place
Love Boat
Get Smart
Green Acres
Wild Wild West
Lost in Space
Stalag 17
House Md
Angel 4
The West Wing
News Radio
Pursuit of Happyness
King of The Hill
Rush Hour 2 & 3
Kill Bill
The Bob Newhart TV Show

Some Film Scores - Electric Bass

Ace Eli & Roger of The Skies
Across 110th Street
Adam At 6AM
Angel In My Pocket
Angel 4
Baby The Rain Must Fall
Beach Boys: An American Family
Beneath The Planet Of The Apes
Beach Blanket Bingo
The Big Chill
The Big Bus
Big Jake
Bikini Beach
The Boatnicks
Bob Carol Ted And Alice
Boogie Nights
Bubble Boy
Bucket List, The
Bunny O'Hare
Butch Cassidy And The Sundance Kid
Butterflies Are Free
C.S.I. Crime Scene Investigation
Cactus Flower
Cahill US Marshall
Change Of Habit The Cheyenne Social Club
Colussus The Forbin Project
Coogan's Bluff
The Cool Ones
Daddy's Gone A-Hunting
A Dandy In Aspic
Dangerous Minds
Darker Than Amber
Devils Angels
Disturbing Behavior
Don't Make Waves
Downhill Racer
The Eiger Sanction
Escape From The Planet Of The Apes
Father Of The Bride
Ferris Bueller's Day Off
Fireball 500
Flea In Her Ear
Fools Rush In
Forrest Gump
The Fox
The Gang Who Couldn't Shoot Straight
The Getaway
The Grasshopper
Great Northfield Minn. Raid
Guess Who's Coming To Dinner
Gypsy Moths
The Happy Ending
Hello Down There
High Plains Drifter
The Hot Rock
House, MD
Houseboat (guitar)
How To Stuff A Wild Bikini
I Love You Alice B Toklas
If He Hollars Let Him Go
The Impossible Years
In Cold Blood
In The Heat Of The Night
Kill Bill
King Of Kings
King Of The Hill
La Bamba
Lady In Cement
Last Of The Secret Agents
Le Mans
Live A Little Love A Little
The Long Goodbye
The Lost Man
The Love Machine
MASH (and all MASH TV shows - rec'd re-uses)
McKenna's Gold
Magnum Force
A Man Called Gannon
Matchstick Men
Medicine Ball Caravan
Meet The Parents
Me Natalie
Miniskirt Mob
The Money Pit
Murderer's Row
Myra Breckenbridge
Naked Gun 2-1/2
The New Adventures of Wonder Woman
The New Centurions
They Call Me Mister Tibbs
Newman's Law
Nobody's Perfect
No Way To Treat A Lady
Oceans 13
On Any Sunday
One Is A Lonely Number
Only Game In Town
The Paper Chase (and TV shows)
Patch Adams
The Pawnbroker
Pete And Tillie
The Pink Jungle
Plaza Suite
Poseidon Adventure
Practical Magic
Puf 'N Stuff
Pursuit Of Happyness
Red Line 7000
Rush Hour 2
Rush Hour 3
The Shakiest Gun In The West
Shoes Of The Fisherman
Shrek (Whipped Cream)
Silent Running
The Slender Thread
Sometimes A Great Notion
The Split
Stand Up And Be Counted
Sugarland Express
Sweet Charity
Sweet Ridge
The Swinger
Tell Me That You Love Me Junie Moon
Tell Them Willie Boy Is Here
There Was A Crooked Man
The Thief Who Came To Dinner
The Letter
Thomas Crown Affair
Three Bites Of The Apple
Thunder Alley
Tin Men
Tony Rome
Top Gun
Two People
The Undefeated
Vanilla Sky
Vegas Vacation
Walk Don't Run
A Walk On The Moon
Walking Tall
The West Wing
Waterhole 3
What's So Bad About Feeling Good
Where Angels Go Trouble Follows
Where Were You When The Lights Went Out
A Whisper Kills
White Lightning
Wild In The Streets
Wild Racers
Will Penny
With Six You Get Egg Roll
Young Billy
The Young Runaways
Yours Mine And Ours
Viva Las Vegas
Houseboat 1958 (guitar) ......and many others.

I did the entire scores of all the movies listed (plus many more not listed), except a few of the later ones like Tin Man, Shampoo, American Grafitti, Top Gun, Ghost, La Bamba (guitar on La Bamba and Ghost) etc. which used old music. The list of paid re-use monies changes from year to they are reported for re-uses on free TV (cable TV does not pay for re-uses of movies).

Some T.V. Specials with:

Red Skelton
Nancy Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Lena Horne
Petula Clarke
Bob Hope
G.I.T on Broadway (Motown)
Academy Awards Shows
Herb Alpert
That's Entertainment
Brian Wilson
Glen Campbell
Petula Clarke and Andy Williams

Her website:
(you can still take bass lessons on Skype from her)

Excellent video where she talks about moving from jazz to rock/pop and lots of others things. Moving from jazz meant dumbing down ... but being a studio musician payed a lot better than playing jazz in clubs (and jazz was dying).
08-05-2017, 03:39 AM, (This post was last modified: 08-05-2017, 03:40 PM by john.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
Quote:Carol Kaye: my 10 greatest recordings of all time

The Beach Boys - Sloop John B (1966)...

Nancy Sinatra - These Boots Are Made For Walkin' (1968)

...“Nancy liked two basses on her songs. That might’ve come from Billy Strange, who did the arrangement. But it worked. You needed a strong bottom end on a song like this. Boy, what a hit, huh? You couldn't turn on the radio at one point without hearing 'Boots.'”

[Note: she did not play the iconic bass line in Boots, that was a stand-up bass. She played electric bass on the song]

Sam Cooke - Summertime (1957)

“I played the guitar on this song. Bumps Blackwell had come into a club and saw me playing bebop jazz, and he asked me to play on a record he was producing. I really didn’t want to do it because I liked the clubs, but I needed the money. It wasn’t long till I realized there was more money in making records...

Ray Charles - America The Beautiful (1972)

...“As a bass player, I knew I had to keep it simple. This wasn’t a song where I was supposed to call attention to the part or move the music. It was all about Ray. All I had to do was find the right spaces and let him shine. There were a couple of fills I did. I think of them as background singers going, ‘Amen!’ That’s the only embellishment you need.”

Ray Charles - In The Heat Of The Night (1967)

“What a great, great project. I worked with Quincy Jones on the film music, playing fuzz bass on a lot of the cues. That was pretty cool. Not many people knew you put fuzz on a bass; they thought it only worked with a guitar.

“Playing the title song with Ray Charles was a dream come true. Ray was so easy to work for. I thought he was a real salt-of-the-earth kind of man. We traded a lot of jokes back and forth. He was a good kidder.

“We cut the track at Ray’s studio. I asked to have his vocal way up in my headphones because that’s what I wanted to play to. On some records, you want to cook with the band. With Ray Charles, you wanted to cook with his singing. His vocal was the most important thing, so that’s what you had to support.”

Glen Campbell - Wichita Lineman (1968)

...“At one point, though, Jimmy Webb stopped me and had me do some fills. Then it was decided that I should start off the song. So that’s what you hear: me on my bass, playing this little bouncy part that introduces the number.

“Glen sang his butt off. He really captured the words and set a mood. It was incredible to see him go on and become such a success. A truly nice man."

Lou Rawls - A Natural Man (1971)...

Barbra Streisand - The Way We Were (1973)

“The single of this song is the one to hear. There are so many different versions from the movie out there, but that’s the sweet stuff. All the versions have the same strings, but on the single you can hear the solid drums and the bass part that I created.

“It was all cut live - strings, the band, and Barbra sing right there with us. I think we did 32 takes, which was quite a lot. I was trying to work around Barbra’s vocals, but Marvin Hamlisch, the producer, kept getting annoyed. ‘Stick to the part, Carol. Don’t ad-lib,’ he told me.

“I was getting pretty bored playing such a simple part, so after 31 takes I just decided, ‘Oh hell, I’m gonna go for it.’ [laughs] I played some real interesting lines and fills. Barabra’s voice held this long note, and the feeling was electrifying. She gave it her all, I gave it my all, and the whole thing came together.”

Frank & Nancy Sinatra - Somethin' Stupid (1967)

“’Somethin’ Stupid’? Well, we thought the title was pretty dumb. [laughs] Who would write something and call it ‘Somethin’ Stupid’? But the song turned out to be a real winner, and when I heard the lyrics, the title made a lot of sense.

“It’s a fun song, but it’s also a love song. When Nancy sang it with her dad, boy, that was powerful. The two of them had such father-daughter affection for each other. It was really great to see.

“It was funny, though: Frank was all business. I think we only did a couple of takes and he was out the door. He did what he had to do, he liked what he heard, and he didn’t hang around.

“We had a really good band on this one: Hal Blaine on drums; Chuck Berghofer on electric bass – I played string bass; and Al Casey on guitar, doing some real nice stuff. A wonderful recording.”

Joe Cocker - Feelin' Alright (1969)

“This was with Paul Humphrey on drums and Artie Butler on keys. Artie started out the riff, and Paul and I joined in. We got such a groove. The whole thing just rolled. Before you knew it, we were locked in beautifully.

“Joe Cocker was in the studio singing with us, which was great. In my opinion, he’s one of the only white guys who can really sing like Ray Charles, so to have him right there, working off of everything we did, it was such an inspiration.

“We played our hearts out on that song, and we nailed a great take. Then an engineer told us that we had to do it again – somebody had forgotten to roll the tape! [laughs] Oh, my goodness! You're kidding me, right?

"Well, we did it again and got it just as good. No, we got it really good. But you know what? There was something about the version that didn’t get recorded, the one that nobody will ever hear - it was THE take! [sighs] Oh, well..."

Some recordings where she played bass:

Midnight Confessions
Quote:The song was recorded by the Wrecking Crew as were all Grass Roots songs, the band only added vocals later, the group of LA studio-musicians known as the Wrecking Crew, including Carol Kaye playing the opening and full track bass-line, it has been argued that Joe Osborn played the bass on this track, however if you go to Carol Kaye's website and go to library and then photo's and scroll down you will see a picture of one of her royalty checks for playing on Midnight Confessions's, consider that case closed

The Beach Boys [Pet Sounds] - Sloop John B

Games People Play -- Mel Torme'

Can't Help Myself

Joe Cocker - Feelin' Alright

“We played our hearts out on that song, and we nailed a great take. Then an engineer told us that we had to do it again – somebody had forgotten to roll the tape! [laughs] Oh, my goodness! You're kidding me, right?

"Well, we did it again and got it just as good. No, we got it really good. But you know what? There was something about the version that didn’t get recorded, the one that nobody will ever hear - it was THE take! [sighs] Oh, well..."

skippymaroo 1 year ago
Carol Kaye on bass - makes that tune move .

The Doors - Light My Fire

The Marketts - "Batman Theme"

The four tops - Bernadette

The Crystals - Da Doo Ron Ron

Cher - Gypsy's tramps & thieves

Played guitar on these:

La Bamba - Ritchie Valens

I Got You Babe

08-05-2017, 05:11 AM,
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
Other session players

Quote:A note from Carol...

There were around 350 really great studio musicians who played together, created lines together (especially the rhythm sections), and had the right attitude to constantly work some round-the-clock hours almost every day of the year to help create and perform in the studios. My fellow studio musicians and I had no idea this music would live on so well, but it's awfully nice to be driving in the car and know:

"oh there's Earl's fine fills, there's Hal's great tomtoms, ah nice piano Larry, beautiful trumpet Ollie, good violins you all, great percussion Gene and Victor, perfect time Don" and on and on....

I almost feel embarrassed about all the credits but these tunes represent the work of *everybody*, not just me, not just the star, or the tune, but of mostly family-oriented musicians who were respected, in-demand, no-nonsense coffee-driven (yes) and there were some pretty funny moments too, plenty of one-liners at times. These are some of the musicians playing on your favorite past recordings, movies, TV shows:

Drums: Charley Blackwell, Earl Palmer, Sharky Ed Hall, Hal Blaine, Jesse Sailes, John Guerin, Paul Humphrey, Panama Francis, Shelly Manne, Alvin Stoller, Irv Cottler, Jim Keltner, Louis Bellson, Ed Thigpen, Jake Hanna, Ed Shaughnessey, Jeff Porcaro, Nick Ceroli, Harold Jones, Mel Lewis, Larry Bunker, James Gadson, Ed Greene, Ron Tutt, Jack Sperling, Frankie Capp, Jackie Mills, Harvey Mason, Sol Gubin, Cubby O'Brien, Jim Gordon, Dick Shanahan, Frank DeVito.

Percussion: Gene Estes, Gary Coleman, Emil Richards, Julius Wechter, Joe Porcaro, Lou Singer, Jerry Williams, Victor Feldman, Laudir, Milt Holland, Bobbye Hall, Jack Lord, Alan Estes, Kenny Watson, Jack Arnold, Frank Flynn, Tommy Vig, Dale Anderson, Jerry Steinholtz, Larry Bunker, Hal Rees, Jack Costanza, Dick Shanahan, Stan Levey, Laudir.

Guitar: Rene Hall, Howard Roberts, Bud Coleman, Tommy Tedesco, Barney Kessel, Tony Rizzi, Billy Strange, Glen Campbell, Allen Reuss, Bobby Gibbons, Bob Bain, Dennis Budimer, John Gray, Bill Pitman, Al Casey, Al Hendrikson, Irving Ashby, Mundell Lowe, Mike Anthony, Lou Morell, Al Viola, Ray Pohlman, Arthur Wright, Nick Bonney, Toots Thielemans, Don Peake, Charles Wright, James Burton, Dean Parks, Mitch Holder, Mike D'Asey, David Cohen, Jerry Cole, Charley Chiarenza, Neil LeVang, David T. Walker, Larry Carlton, John Collins, Jim Helms, Al Vescovo, Louie Shelton, Ralph Grasso, Don Lawrence.

Keyboards: Don Randi, Leon Russell, Mike Melvoin, Arnold Ross, Larry Knechtal, Ray Johnson, Joe Sample, Clare Fischer, Larry Muhoberac, Pete Jolly, Lincoln Mayorga, Jimmy Jones, Gerald Wiggins, Mike Rubini, Don Abney, Mike Lang, Roger Kellaway, Billy Preston, Artie Butler, Clark Gassman, Russ Freeman, Dave Grusin, Mac Rabbennec, Gene Garf, Al DeLory, Gene Page, JoAnn Grauer, Pearl Kaufman, Paul Beaver (1st sysnthesizer), Jimmy Rowles, Ian Underwood, Ralph Grierson.

Saxes: Plas Johnson, Bill Green, Steve Douglas, Jackie Kelso, Jim Horn, Jay Migliori, Gene Cipriano, Abe Most, Willie Schwartz, Marshall Royal, Bob Hardaway, John Klemmer, Bud Shank, Paul Horn, Tony Ortega, Buddy Collette, Ted Nash, Bob Cooper, Ronnie Lang, John Bambridge, Pete Crisleib, Tom Scott, John Lowe, Julie Jacobs, Babe Rustin, Dick Houlgate, Harry Klee, Bill Holman, Harold Batiste, Chuck Gentry, Justin Gordon, Benny Golson, Bill Hood, Jack Montrose, Ernie Watts, Jack Nimitz, Don Menza, Gary Foster, Rene Bloch, Jack Dumont.

Trumpets: Ollie Mitchell, Tony Terran, John Audino, Pete & Conte Candoli, Blue Mitchell, Jules Chaiken, Bud Brisbois, John Best, Harry "Sweets" Edison, Cat Anderson, Virgil Evans, Bobby Shew, Chuck Findley, Paul Hubonen, Cappy Lewis, Manny Klein, Don Rader, Roy Caton, Buddy Childers, Ray Triscari, Bobby Bryant, Don Ellis, Maurey Harris, Steve Hufstetter, Oscar Brashear, Uan Rasey, Snooky Young, Jay Daversa, Al Aarons, Lee Katzman, Freddy Hill, Bill Peterson, Conrad Gozzo, Al Porcino, Jack Dumont.

Trombones: Lew McCreary, Dick Nash, Milt Bernhart, Dick Noel, Bob Enevoldsen, Harry Betts, Billy Byers, Tommy Shepard, Gail Martin, Lloyd Ulyate, George Roberts, Bob Brookmeyer, George Bohanon, Gil Falco, Bobby Knight, Charlie Loper, Dick Gould, Vern Friely, Kenny Shroyer, Mike Barone, Grover Mitchell, Dick Hyde, Lou Blackburn, JJ Johnson, Dave Wells, Curt Berg, Frank Rossolino, Tommy Pederson, Dick Leith, Chris Riddle, Paul Tanner, Dick McQuary, Ernie Tack.

String Bass: Chuck Hamilton, Joe Comfort, Don Bagley, Adlophus Alsbrook, Al McKibbon, Chuck Berghofer, James Bond, Red Mitchell, Red Calender, Lyle Ritz, Buddy Clark, Cliff Hils, Ray Brown, Joe Mondragon, Ralph Pena, Steve LaFever, Monty Budwig, Irving Edelman, Chuck Domanico, Abe Luboff, Jim Hughart, Morty Corb, Gene Cerico, Bob Stone, Frank De La Rosa, Ray Durand, Bob West, Peter Mercurio, Mike Rubin, Ed Gilbert, Nat Gangursky, Abe Siegel, Sid Weiss, Jerry Scheff, Carson Smith, Rolly Bundock, Don Greif, Ray Neopolitan, Mel Pollan, Bob Berteaux, Max Bennett, Ray Siegel, Milt Kestenbaum, Arni Egilsson, John Kitzmiller.

Elec. Bass: Ray Pohlman (first No. 1 call studio bassist LA 1957-1964+, was musical conductor of "Shindig" TV Show), Arthur Wright, Rene Hall, Bob West, Larry Knechtel, Buddy Clark, Chuck Berghofer, Jim Hughart, Joe Osborn, Max Bennett, Steve LeFever, Jerry Scheff, Lyle Ritz.

Strings: John Vidor, Harry Bluestone, Lenny Malarsky, George Poole, Ed Lustgarten, Virginia Gill, Jimmy Getzoff, Eleanor Slatkin, Fred Katz, Ray Kramer, Tibor Zelig, Erno Neufelder, Fred Seykora, Bobby Bruce, Nate Kaproff, Jerry Reisler, Sid Sharpe, Al Saparoff, Anatol Kaminsky, Ray Kelley, Jerome Kessler, Ann Karam, Arnold Belnick, Marshall Sassoon, Jerry Vinci, Henry Lojewsky, Israel Baker, Bob Sushel, William Kurasch.

Harmonica: Tommy Morgan, Toots Thielemans.

French Horns: Vince De Rosa, Dick Perissi, Bill Hinshaw, David Duke, Willie Ruff, Dwight Carver.

Harpists: Catherine Gotthoffer, Dorothy Remsen, Stella Castellucci, Gayle Levant, Verlye Mills, Joy ______

Accordian: Carl Fortina, Pete Jolly, Frank Marocco, Dominic Frontiere, Jimmy Haskell.

Synthesizer: Paul Beaver.

Sousaphone & Tuba: John Kitzmiller

Studio Singers: Jackie Ward, B.J. (Betty Jane) Baker -singer-contractor, Gracia Nitzche, Bob Alcivar Singers, Billie Barnum, Susie Tallman, Gordon Mitchell, Gene Morford, Ian Smith, Ron Hickland singers, Randy Van Horne Singers (Vangie, B.J., Mary, Hugh, Bob Zwern, Sue, Allen), the Blossoms (Darlene Love, Fanita, Jean King), Johnny Mann Singers, Jack Halloran Singers, Jimmy Joyce Singers, John & Tom Bahler, Al Capps (Eligibles), George Tipton, Ian Freebairn-Smith, Brenda & Pat Holloway, Clydie King, Ray Pohlman, Loren Farber, Thurl Ravenscroft, Tom Bosley, Betty Burke, Barbara Caton, Clark Gassman, Don Robertson, Scott Page, Merrie Clayton, Sally Stevens, Larry Hooper, Peggy Schwartz, Gwen Johnson.

There are more than this list, but this gives you a picture of the musicianship, a real family of talented people, who made 1,000s of recordings of the late 50s, 60s, 70s, etc....
08-05-2017, 01:24 PM, (This post was last modified: 08-05-2017, 03:22 PM by john.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
From Carol Kaye's FAQ (

Quote:Q. I always thought the groups of the 60s recorded their own music, and just recently found out it was your bunch of studio musicians who recorded my favorite hits. Was our baby-boomer generation scammed about our 60s music, since studio musicians were never credited with recording the 60s music we grew up with and lived our lives by?

A. From posting on many Boards on the Web, I sense a feeling at first of one of disbelief, then real anger, and finally total acceptance of how things went down about the way that music of the 60s was recorded, advertised and written about. There is always a certain amount of wrongful data getting out. It's not a science, it's the music business.

The Earl Palmer Story" by Tony Scherman (and Earl Palmer, publisher: Smithsonian) is the most comprehensive to date as well as the one by Bob Keane, producer of note ("La Bamba" other big hits) for many decades. Others to come out soon as well as more-factual documentaries than the phony one out right now. I'm also working on my own auto-biography.

To say it was a "scam", in some sense, yes....when the Monkees kept repeating in news releases that they "cut their own music" (when we all knew we did their musical tracks for them in the 60s), well...that's show-biz, and others too, same way.


But as one matures, it's easier to see the discrepancies and it's this fact that is the hardest to accept if you've been close to music of the 60s, the background of which was hidden because of prejudices of blacks and whites working together back then (and now).

The 60s sales distribution force was interested in sales, not truths as to how the product was "made", that was immaterial and some even knew about us and told others about us. But in-general, we were not widely known as the studio musicians who recorded everyone's hits for them. So you were led to believe certain untrue things and the visual touring groups weren't going to say "it wasn't us on our records."

One thing, to look at our 60s group of musicians together in photos, do you think the music would have been bought as much in the turbulent 1960s had everyone known mixed races, people as old as the parents of the boomer generation, mostly jazz musicians with one blonde white lady on bass had done all those recordings?

It's up to people to believe things with a grain of salt in the news media which gets it wrong more than right sometimes. Music is a very personal thing to most people, and that's wonderful, it's a beautiful art-form, but to make it a sort of "god" is not right either.

Some people get carried away as their belief system cannot accept "new" ideas, new isms and you'll find plenty of zealots posing as "historians" taking advantage of any confusion to get their agendas across too.

Studio musicians, mostly, were NOT interested in becoming "stars"....we were part of the process in business to make people into "stars". We knew the ropes on that, saw the whole thing from the inside, something the general public, including many live musicians have little or no idea of.

It's a business, but a tough competitive business - you had to be extremely great on your instrument and very self-disciplined, having a multitude of all kinds of musical skills, and be totally reliable as well as totally experienced to succeed..

We were very content making a great living recording music (howbeit, sometimes very boring, playing very mundane music styles maybe we didn't like to personally play, but that's got nothing to do with it, our personal likes and dislikes do not enter into this at all. It was a business and we were all grateful to do it, and enjoyed making the recordings we did yes!).

We took care of our families by insuring that we would have work "next year" by doing an excellent job in all styles of music: rock, surf, blues, pop, funky stuff, soul, latin-soul, gospel, commercial music of all kinds inc. some commercial jazz....jazz was not much of a money-maker for record co's tho'....and saw what a grind being a "star" was, how fragile, how much work to be "on-stage", dealing with managers, record co's, accountants, road managers, back-up traveling musicians, repertoire, rehearsals, and yes, the press and PR was unbelievable!!

No, we were content just to be "in the background", recording (and in most instances at first, helping to create) their hits for them, having the respect of all of LA, and making more money than any musician could possibly make altho' it took a toll on our health to play intensely all those hours, drink so much coffee, smoke so many cigarettes and be alert up to more than 16 hours a day when we did it...playing probably more hours than 10-20 other musicians ever would in their lifetime, yes it was a GRIND!

But it paid the bills, helped us raise our kids and we still played music, better than traveling on the road, making 1/4 as much, and being away from our families. Our Musicians Union insured our pension and re-use benefits...if they chose not to insist that our names be on the back of the record albums back in the 60s (as they were from 1973 on), then that didn't bother us at all.

But the new music of the rock and roll led people to believe in the 60s a certain way...and that's too bad as it coincided with heavy drug uses ("to be like my idols") I believe, and that was unfortunate. Most of the studio musicians were never into drugs and booze, you couldn't do your job on drugs, no way, and we didn't want to use drugs, why do that?

It was known as stupid back then-- most of us saw what happens to live musicians on drugs as we played jazz in clubs for many years before studio work.

So yes, in a sense it was a "scam" to the "credit-conscious" world, but the world is full of just have to be aware and as you get older. .

It's wonderful to admire people who do something beautiful like create music - enjoy it but know there'll always be some arguments about music credits -- the record co's only want to sell records, other people have their agendas.

Remember that, and remember to question who is making a lot of money by presenting controversy's a shame to defame people to do that, sometimes it happens..

The Wrecking Crew studio muscians
[Image: 1*QlPZy-4XZWys8rF_4Kb8Lw.jpeg]

While it was widely known that bands like the Monkees did not record there own music, exploring this material shows that there were a number of bands that did not do the studio work. In some cases a bit stunning actually.

Carol Kaye doesn't like the Wrecking Crew -- feels it was invented by Hal Blaine in a later movie he made to promote himself.

There is some squabbling about who played what on which songs since these players were not credited. Carol Kaye has gone as far as posting check stubs (redacted to not show the $) to prove her participation in various recordings.
08-05-2017, 01:50 PM,
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
amazing --thanks for sharing(I haven't gotten through all of it yet)

...! wow . I hope they kept all the footage of the original video. She deserves a multi hour historical-documentary ... walking us through the decades of pop music revolving around her inputs.
08-05-2017, 01:58 PM, (This post was last modified: 08-05-2017, 03:48 PM by john.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
Played bass on the recording of Be My Baby

(08-05-2017, 01:50 PM)Tom22 Wrote: amazing --thanks for sharing(I haven't gotten through all of it yet)

...! wow . I hope they kept all the footage of the original video. She deserves a multi hour historical-documentary ... walking us through the decades of pop music revolving around her inputs.

I'm glad to see you're interested, Tom. I fell down this rabbit hole a couple months ago and put some of this in draft form and decided to put it up when I fell back in last night.

I think she belongs in the R&R Hall of Fame. They need a place to recognize these players.

These musicians were professionals doing a job, and while they did not always like the songs they were playing they did there best to craft a hit. Carol says that with rare exceptions, such as Brian Wilson who wrote virtually every note she played (except one or two she snuck in), the songs were generally bare bones when they started and they had to, or had a lot of freedom to make it come together. She credits the complexity and improvisation in the jazz she started out with as giving her the skills to make her part work.

The Wrecking Crew reminds me a little of PMJ -- it wasn't a set crew but the same people were often playing together. They knew each other's styles and how to complement one another and stay out of the way too.


1999 interview
08-06-2017, 03:43 AM, (This post was last modified: 08-06-2017, 04:28 AM by john.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
Sounds Tarantino

Carol Kaye - The Searchers - 1965
Quote:"The Searchers" is a David Axelrod composition given an incredible treatment by legendary L.A. guitarst Carol Kaye on guitar and dano bass. It also features drummer Earl Palmer and other fine musicians of that era. Turn it up and rock out!!

08-06-2017, 02:12 PM, (This post was last modified: 08-06-2017, 02:12 PM by Tom22.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
There is a 2008 documentary on the Wrecking Crew that is available on Netflix
(haven't watched it yet) called ....
The Wrecking Crew
(although similar to a comment she makes in an interview above - she evidently disputes part of that movie but agrees with others.)

I googled around to see what the story was with "Light my Fire" ... I don't think she actually played with the doors but has claimed she did at least record a version of it in the studio when they weren't there and they used it.

Interesting thread on that here

(don't want to take away from her ... but, I guess there is a segment of people out there with some sour grapes saying
...there seem to be a fair number of people out there believing that that she embellishes her story a bit widely..

No-one doubts that she didn't make huge contributions ... but there seems to be more than a few musicians forums who have some mixed evidence on a number of other songs too )

Here is a nicer write up with including some quotes of Paul McCartney saying how much he was influenced by tracks of hers(?) mentions someone else doing .

Quote:“Smile was originally conceived as an extension of the experimentation of the Beach Boys’ Pet Sounds, the album that Paul McCartney acknowledges as having transformed his approach to the bass, in addition to prodding The Beatles to employ the studio more adventurously. McCartney has repeatedly cited Wilson’s bass playing in the era of Pet Sounds and Smile as the inspiration for the lyrical, contrapuntal bass style that he developed around the time of Revolver and Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. The problem is, the bass player on nearly all of both Pet Sounds and Smile was not Brian Wilson. It was a jazz musician and studio pro in Los Angeles named Carol Kaye.”

And so Paul McCartney once said of Carol Kaye’s bass technique (without, apparently, knowing that it was her talents he was admiring):

“It was Pet Sounds that blew me out of the water. I love the album so much. I’ve just bought my kids each a copy of it for their education in life ... I figure no one is educated musically ‘til they’ve heard that album ... I love the orchestra, the arrangements ... it may be going overboard to say it’s the classic of the century ... but to me, it certainly is a total, classic record that is unbeatable in many ways ... I’ve often played Pet Sounds and cried. I played it to John so much that it would be difficult for him to escape the influence ... it was the record of the time. The thing that really made me sit up and take notice was the bass lines ... and also, putting melodies in the bass line. That I think was probably the big influence that set me thinking when we recorded Pepper, it set me off on a period I had then for a couple of years of nearly always writing quite melodic bass lines. ‘God Only Knows’ is a big favorite of mine ... very emotional, always a bit of a choker for me, that one. On ‘You Still Believe in Me,’ I love that melody - that kills me ... that’s my favorite, I think ... it’s so beautiful right at the end ... comes surging back in these multi-colored harmonies ... sends shivers up my spine.”

In some ways the controversy .. sort of makes her all the more of a firebrand -- or at least a character Smile
08-06-2017, 04:48 PM, (This post was last modified: 08-06-2017, 06:50 PM by john.)
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
I was going to put together a post on the "embellishment" or controversy part of things, but still trying to chase down details.

First I will say a lot of the accusations are repeats of the same comments over and over. Clearly she doesn't have the same recollections as some of the old players on certain songs. Overall, there is no question that she was a bigtime contributor on many recordings, but some specific sessions are in dispute. The bass on Midnight Confessions was claimed by another for example and she does have payment for use of that in a film (I think that was it) posted to show her involvement. Other stuff she doesn't have proof, nor do others. Some of the disputed stuff involved dubs that were done separately, then added to the track.

It is too bad there are these controversies. Some of it may be due to her perspective that there are a lot of distortions in books and videos, such as the Wrecking Crew. She claimed that there are a lot of distortions put forward by others to enhance their own reputations. One problem is that musicians did not need to be credited in any way until 1973.

There are other issues. By various accounts Motown was recording in LA in 1964, although they were claiming that recordings were being done in Detroit. Carol recalled recording ostensibly for a Motown act called the Lewis Sisters (who couldn't sing by her account), only to hear the music released later on a record by another well know Motown group. By various accounts Motown was violating various musician union rules and never admitted to anything.

Here is the kind of thing that shows up in music forums
Quote:The Shaft bass line isn't particularly impressive, but her resume certainly is.

It's worth mentioning that in recent years Carol has credited herself for sessions she never took part in.

But let's not pretend that Kaye was the only Doors bassist.

Case in point.

Personally I think she's just a little confused, as her resume hardly needs any padding. She was an amazing musician.

People make a lot of assumptions. I don't think she played the obvious bass line in Shaft, for example. She may have added some "fill" as she describes it, for one version -- for the movie not the single. (I'm am not saying this is the case although she lists this as a movie overdub). Same could happen with something like Light My Fire. A producer might decide the recording was too thin in some ways and after the song has been initially recorded get a studio musician to subtly beef it up. Not saying that is how it went down with LMF, but she described that dubbing process in a general way. In cases like that nobody would recall the session player, because they were not there -- it was recorded separately. When LMF was recorded the Doors were not the big name they came to be after it was released. They initially recorded the long album version and then were told they need a short version if they wanted radio play. I am sure the producers and record company had a heavy hand in creating the sound they thought would sell, and some of the may have involved post production changes like adding some overdub.

I wouldn't be surprised if she didn't over reach in some claims, but that would apply to a lot of those players. She recorded thousands of songs (10K sessions with multiple songs per session usually). She may get disputed doubly from some of the old timers because she is female. I think there are some songs that don't fit time lines and she probably didn't do as much as she implies, but it is very difficult to find clear proof that she didn't participate in specific recordings.

Another from a forum...
Quote:She is a talented lady, no doubt, but her memory is faulty, perhaps because of advancing age. I won't get into a long winded response at this time, but her claim about playing on some of these Motown songs can easily be dismissed. I'm not going to go so far as to call her a liar, but I am. She may have done some work for Motown, but she never played on ANY Holland-Dozier-Holland song or production, at least prior to April 1970, as they were all done in Detroit....

This person was not there and this has been addressed at length. They were not all done in Detroit (that was PR bullsh*t). Carol and others have spoken about the recordings for Motown at length.

Oh, what about this:
Quote:he producers Frank Wilson & Hal Davis were based in Los Angeles I believe.

The notes with the 2004 Motown Treasures CD indicate that the track was recorded in Los Angeles (date unknown) with background vocals recorded in Detroit April 21, 1966, lead vocal recorded April 27 (presumably Detroit?)

The 2008 Supreme Rarities CD which includes the alternate vocal version has the same information apart from the contradictory "all dates Los Angeles"

Nonetheless the person who speculated her memory is failing spreads this stuff and others pick it up.

She said the same things in 1973
Quote:"Motown recorded about half here and half in Detroit," she said. "They were saving money because they were a new company, so we played for less than union scale. Hell, we thought they were demos, but when we heard them as hits we demanded scale.""

Rolling Stone, November 22, 1973. Page 26.

Not trying to defend Carol Kaye in all of the disputed tracks, but I see a lot of people who are willing to jump on that train with very little evidence. There is a ton of that. It is kind of like the AI folks who said Haley has a bad attitude. LOL. No doubt she is boisterous and opinionated.

However Carol Kaye played on the Bob Thiele & Gabor Szabo album - Light My Fire 1967, as did Tom Scott. She did not play on the title track though, but she did on this one:

Bob Thiele & Gabor Szabo - Eight Miles High

This was her first bass work as a studio musician (perhaps when the guy no showed)
08-07-2017, 01:19 AM,
RE: Carol Kaye session musician
Kojak theme Season 1 (she only did season 1 then it changed)

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